Abnormal sperm parameters
Absolute necrozoospermia (when all sperms are dead) : in case of axonemel defects such as immotile cilia syndrome.
The cause is unknown.
Causes of aspermia:
-anejaculation due to spasm (functional);
-obstruction to ejaculatory ducts;
-retrograde ejaculation-retrieval of sperm from bladder;
-transrectal aspiration from dilated seminal vesicle/seminal vesicle cyst.
-Postsurgical obstruction:hydrocele,inguinal hernia repair,vasectomy;
-Congenital bilateral absence of vas/blind ending vas/spermatocele;
-Ejaculatory duct obstructions.
-SCOS (Sertoli cell only syndrome),germ cell aplasia;
-fibrosis and atrophy;
-surgical implantation of testis into thigh;